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2018年12月大学英语四级阅读理解题库

永恒彩票   2018-07-09   【

2018年12月大学英语四级阅读理解题库

  阅读理解的主要测试题型有主旨题、细节题、推论题、语义题、态度题、

  例证题、引证题、标题题、体裁题等。

  1.主旨类考题

  该类题主要测试对文章段落主题思想的掌握,涉及到文章的中心思想、主要

  内容和标题等。标志词一般有“main idea”、“main topic”、“best title”、“subject”、“purpose of the writer”等。这类题的解题关键在于找出文章或段落主题句的位置,并排除干扰项。一般说来正确的选项应具有概括性,能概括文章的全部内容,既不能太宽也不能太窄;还应具有宏观性和抽象性,不应停留在个别事例或事实上;而干扰项一般都是些局部信息,或是一句未展开讨论的话,或是某一段的主要内容;干扰项还可能概括内容太大,把文章的内容无限制的扩大化,包括的内容多于文章所阐述的内容,过于笼统;还有一些干扰项是一些无关信息,在文章中根本找不到根据。

  有超过一半的文章主旨出现在文章的开头或结尾。例如:

  As the cause is lack of bright light, the treatment is to be in bright light every day by using a light box of a similar bright light treatment. (Going to a brightly-lit climate, whether skiing or somewhere hot, is indeed a cure.) The preferred level of light is about as bright as a spring morning on a clear day and for most people sitting in front of a light box, allowing the light to reach the eyes, for between 15 and 45 minutes daily will be sufficient to alleviate the symptoms. The user does not have to stare at the light, but can watch TV or read a book, just allowing the light to reach the eyes. OUTSIDE IN have a complete range of suitable lights, all in line with the research findings from medical and academic facilities. They are all available on our pioneering HOME TRIAL SYSTEM. (2006年12月浙江省大学英语三级考试题)

  Which of the following sentences best express the main idea of the paragraph?

  A. Why people suffer from SAD.

  B. How SAD patients can be treated.

  C. How long can SAD treatment lasts.

  D. Where people can go for SAD treatment.

  此段主要讲述SAD的治疗方法,而不是人们患SAD的原因、治疗SAD需

  要多长时间以及到何地去治疗,因此,B项的how说的是方法、方式,故选之。

  还有相当多的一些文章,没有明显的主题句,这就要求考生对全文内容或段落进行分析、归纳、概括和推理,才能找到其主旨大意。

  2.细节类考题

  细节题在阅读理解中占有很大比例,涉及内容也很广。所谓细节题就是把文

  章中某一句话、某一个要点拿出来单独考,是针对原文具体叙述本身发问的。解题时必须立足于原文,从原文中逐一查找核实,然后再确定正确答案。例如:

  Not all risks lend themselves to being covered by insurance. Broadly speaking, the ordinary risks of business cannot be covered. The risk that buyers will not buy goods at the prices offered is not a kind that can be estimated in numbers and risks can only be insured against if they can be estimated. (2005年6月浙江省大学英语三级考试题)

  Which of the following can be covered by insurance?

  A. All risks of business. B. All houses damaged by fire.

  C. Goods with clearly marked prices. D. Things whose values can be estimated.

  这是典型的细节性考题,要求考生根据此段落的内容作出回答。从次段中可以看出,只有可以估价的东西才可以投保,故D项正确。

  我们在解题时,可依照以下步骤:1、根据题干中的中心词定位原文段落,如选项中有内容超出此段落的可首先排除。2、选项中未含文章或该段落中心词的,首先排除。3、如果是“有无”或者“是非”题的话,则依题支的中心词定位原文。4、定位原文后,仔细对照,如果选项可以在文章中找到确切依据,则为正确选项;如找不到,则为非正确的选项。正确选项一般具有此类特征:一般不会与原文一模一样,通常是原文的“换个说法”。其表象形式为:1、如文中是双重否定,正确的选项一般会以肯定形式出现;文中肯定,正确的选项则可能会是双重否定。2、换词法,把关键词换为其同义词或近义词。(所换词多为名词(n)或形容词(adj.)3、很多时候,正确选项为段落的主旨句或强转折、强对比之后的观点。与之相反,干扰项具有以下的特点:1、内容是原文中的信息,但与题目不符。2、符合常理,但文中未提及。3、含有原文原句中的单词,尤其是生词、难词,但不一定是正确的选项。4、将文章中的非绝对的观点绝对划,非具体的内容具体化。5、偷梁换柱,张冠李戴。

  3.推论题

  这类题目要求考生不仅要理解文章的字面意思,还要根据所读材料进行一定

  的判断和推论,从而领会文章的隐含意义和深层意义,理解作者的言外之意。推论题的标志词有:“infer/inference/suggest/imply/implication/conclude/conclusion”等。推论题的答案往往不在文章的字面中。选项中某一选项和原文的某句话相同,则通常不是答案。推论既不能原地不动,也不能走得太远,即大大超越了原文。必须根据已知信息进行推理,一定要从原文中找到推理的依据,并在原来依据的基础上往前稍稍走一步。此外,文章中的一些特定词语的特定含义常常是解题的关键。

  这类题通常要求考生判断作者写作的态度和意图,推断作者的写作目的,对细节进行推理,推断文章的来源等。

  例如:

  Eye contact with an audience also lets a speaker know and monitor(观察) his listeners. It is, in fact, essential to analyze an audience during a speech. Visual feedback(视觉反馈) from the audience an indicate that a speech is boring, that the speaker is talking too much about a particular point, or that a particular point requires further explanation. As we have pointed out, visual feedback from listeners should play an important role in shaping a speech as it is delivered. (2006年6月浙江省大学英语三级考试题)

  What does the writer imply about visual feedback in this paragraph?

  A. It can make the speaker adjust his speech.

  B. It can make the speech more informative.

  C. It may discourage and stop the speaker.

  D. It may cause the speaker to make less eye contact.

  此段最后一句讲到听众的视觉反馈在调整我们的讲话内容方面起着非常重

  要的作用。我们在推论此题时,要着重推论 “shape”的意思, “shape”有“调整、调节”的意思,故A项正确。

  4.语义题

  语义题也就是词义题,主要考核学生根据上下文推断词义的能力。标志词有

  “the meaning/stand for/be close to/refer to/mean”等。解题时可利用文中的例证。我们在答题时,可采用以下方法:

  1) 利用与这个词紧密相连的前后几个词作解题线索,特别是后面跟有文字说明词义的同位语、定语、破折号、逗号时,常常就是答案所在的位置;

  2) 利用文章中出现的与某生词或词组意义相反的内容;

  3) 利用文章中用不同的话对同一概念的解释;

  4) 利用基本的构词法,如前后缀、合成词等。

  例如:

  Adverse(不良的) drug reactions may cause the deaths of 100,000 U.S. hospital

  patients each year, making them a leading cause of death nationwide, according to a report in the Journal of the American Medical Association.

  “The incidence(发生率) of serious and fatal adverse drug reactions (ADRs) in US hospitals was found to be extremely high, ” say researchers at the University of

  Toronto in Ontario, Canada.

  They carried out an analysis of 39 ADR-related studies at US hospitals over the past 30 years and defined and ADR as “any harmful, unintended, and undesired effect of a drug which occurs at doses(剂量) used in humans for medical treatment.”

  An average 6.7% of all hospitalized patients experience an ADR every year,

  according to the researchers. They estimate that “in 1994, overall 2,216,000 hospitalized patients had serious ADRs, and 106,000 had fatal ADRs.” This means that ADRs may rank as the fourth single largest cause of death in America. (2007年12月浙江省大学英语三级考试题)

  What does the word “fatal” (Para.2&4) mean in the passage?

  A. Resulting in death. B. Lucky.

  C. Leading to happiness. D. Worried.

  该题考查考生根据上下文猜测生词意义的能力。文章第一段就说leading cause of death(导致死亡的原因)。第四段最后一句话又说“这就意味着不良药物反应在美国可能是导致死亡的第四大杀手”,因此很容易推断出fatal的是“致命的”。 A项与fatal的意思吻合,故为正确选项。

  语义题的检验方法是根据该词或词组出现的上下文的语境。

  5.态度题

  态度题一般考作者的态度,有时也考文中某人的态度。态度题最重要的是“看清楚是谁对谁的态度、谁对什么的态度”。 作者的态度一般会孕于文章的行文之中,一些形容词、副词都能表现作者的态度。eg:seem常表示作者对所论问题的否定、批评态度。only也常表示否定态度。双重否定表示作者的强烈肯定或强烈否定,所以,此时作者的态度便不太可能是objective(客观的)了,一般多掺进了作者自己的感情好恶。有时作者也不直接表明态度,会通过举例或引用他人的话来说明自己的态度。此时应注意,所引、举的例子与作者所论述的观点是否一致,可借此来判断作者自己的态度。例如:

  Natural foods also include animals which have been allowed to feed and move freely in healthy farms. Compare this with what happens in the mass production of poultry: there are battery farms, for example, where thousands of chickens live crowded together in one building and re fed on food which is little better than rubbish. Chickens kept in this way are not only tasteless as food; they also produce eggs which lack important vitamins. (2006年12月浙江省大学英语三级考试题)

  What is the writer’s attitude towards chickens fed on battery farms?

  A. Supportive. B. Doubtful.

  C. Hopeful. D. Negative.

  在此段中作者指出,架层式养鸡场里养的鸡不仅吃起来没有味道,而且下的蛋也缺乏重要维生素。显然他对此持否定态度。故D项符合作者的态度。

  我们在答题时,有必要记住一些表态度的词汇:indifferent(漠不关心的)(当问作者其所论内容的态度时,如当备选答案中有该词时,可首先排除,因为如果作者是漠不关心的话,就不会写文章论述了。)、subjective(主观的)、objective(客观的)、positive(肯定的)、negative(否定的)、optimistic(乐观的)、pessimistic(悲观的)、biased(有偏见的)、partial(片面的、偏见的)、impartial(公平的、无偏见的)、puzzling(困惑的)、relevant(适当的、中肯的)、appreciative(欣赏的)、indignant(愤怒的)、supportive(支持的)、apprehensive(担忧的)等。

  6.例证题

  例证题考查的是文章的逻辑结构。这样的文章结构一般是“先举例后论点”或“先论点后举例”。 我们在遇到问“作者举某一或某几个例子的目的”时,有关例子本身的选项一定不是正确的选项。在此类题中,正确选项的特征一般为:跳出例子本身,从宏观上概括,全面而合情合理。但有的时候会专门考所引的话的意思,这样的题就属于例子本身题,可具体问题具体分析。例如:

  Be careful of those who use the truth to deceive(欺骗). When someone tells you something that is true, but leaves out important information that should be included, he can create a false impression. For example, someone might say, “I just won a hundred dollars on the lottery(抽彩给奖法). It was great. I took that dollar ticket back to the store and turned it in for one hundred dollars!” This guy’s a winner, right? Maybe, maybe not. We when discover that he bought two hundred tickets, and only one was a winner. He’s really a big loser! He didn’t say anything that was false, but he omitted important information on purpose. That’s called a half-truth. Half-truths are not technically lies, but they are just as dishonest.

  Dishonest politicians often use this method. Let’s say that during Governor Smith’s last term, her state lost one million jobs and gained three million jobs. Then she seeks another term. One of the politicians opposing her runs an ad saying, “During Governor Smith’s term, the state lost one million jobs!” That’s true. However an honest statement would have been, “During Governor Smith’s term, the state had a net gain of two million jobs.”

  Advertisers will sometimes use half-truths. It’s against the law to make false claims, so they try to mislead you with the truth. An ad might claim, “Nine out of ten doctors recommend Yucky Pills to cure nose pimples(丘疹).” It fails to mention that they only asked ten doctors and nine of them work for the Yucky Company.

  This kind of deception happens too often. It’s a sad fact of life: Lies are lies, and sometimes the truth can lie as well. (2005年6月浙江省大学英语三级考试题)

  What does the writer want to tell us with the example of the lottery winner?

  A. People lose a lot of money in buying lottery tickets.

  B. Lottery makes its buyers dishonest.

  C. He was lucky to win the lottery.

  D. He did not tell the whole truth.

  作者用中奖者的例子,想要告诉我们他没有说出全部的事实,即“买多中少”。

  D项符合作者的意图,故此项为正确答案。

  7.引证题

  引证题是指对关于于文章中作者引用别人的话或是名言,或是他人的观点等等而设置的问题。做此类题一定要注意看作者所引用的观点与作者自己的观点是否一致,如果一致,可从整篇文章的思路推理,如不一致,可从文章的反向考虑。我们在答此类题时,一定要返回原文,仔细比较。例如:

  Why don’t birds get lost on their long migratory(迁徙的) flight? Scientists have puzzled over this question for many years. Now they are beginning to fill in the blanks.

  Not long ago, experiments showed that birds rely on the sun to guide them during daylight hours. But what about birds that fly mainly by night? Tests with artificial(人造的) stars have proved conclusively that certain night-flying birds are able to follow stars in their long-distance flights.

  One such bird─a warbler─had spent its lifetime in a cage and had never flown under a natural sky. Yet it showed an inborn ability to use stars for guidance. The bird’s cage was placed under an artificial star-filled sky at migration time. The bird tried to fly in the same direction as that taken by his outdoor cousins. Any change in the position of the artificial stars caused a change in the direction of his flight.

  Scientists think that warblers, when flying in daylight, use the sun for guidance. But stars are apparently their main means of directed flight in the night. What do they do when stars are hidden by clouds? Apparently, they find their way by such landmarks as mountain ranges, coast lines and river courses. But when it is too dark to see these, the warblers circle helplessly, unable to find their way. (2005年12月浙江省大学英语三级考试题)

  What does the passage say about warblers’ sense of direction?

  A. They are not able to see clearly at night.

  B. They get lost under star-filled sky.

  C. They lose their way when it is too dark.

  D. They usually depend on clouds for direction.

  在此篇文章中,作者首先引用了科学家的观点,即鸟在白天靠太阳导航;接

  着又引用科学家的观点,提到鸟在夜晚靠星星导航。在文章的最后一部分,作者提到在乌云遮住星星的晚上,鸟靠地标导航;但是,当夜晚太黑的时候,鸟看不到地标,就无可奈何了,只好在空中盘旋。不管文章的最后部分是作者的观点,还是作者引用科学家的观点,但最后部分却是作者同意的观点。C项是对有关次嘴莺方向感的正确表述,为正确选项。

  8.标题题

  标题题一般考的是对文章的概括能力。正确选项一般具有这样的特征:简明而全面地概括全篇内容,含有中心词,只说明了文章某个或某几个段落的观点的,不是正确的选项。例如:

  How men first learned to invent words is unknown. All we really know is that men, unlike animals, somehow invented certain sounds to express thoughts and feelings, actions and things, so that they could communicate with each other; and that later they agreed upon certain signs, called letters, which could be combined to represent those sounds, and which could be written down. Those sounds, whether spoken or written in letters, we call words.

  The power of words, then, lies in their associations─ the things they bring up before our minds. Words become filled with meaning for us by experience; and the longer we live, the more certain words recall to us the happy and sad events of our past; the more we read and learn, the larger the number of words that mean something to us becomes.

  Great writers are those who not only have great thoughts but also express these thoughts in words which appeal powerfully to our minds and feelings. This attractive use of words is what we call literary style. Above all, the real peot is a master of words. He can express his meaning in words which sing like music, and, by their position and association, can move men to tears. We should therefore learn to choose our words carefully and use them correctly, or they will make our speech dull and silly. (2005年12月浙江省大学英语三级考试题)

  What is the best title of the passage?

  A. How Language Came into Being B. Language and Human Experience

  C. Poet: a Master of Words D. Language and Its use

  该题是一道典型的标题题,考查考生对全文的掌握。短文介绍了词(即语言)的起源,然后介绍语言的作用。D项简明全面地概括了全篇内容,可以作为文章的标题,故正确答案为该项。

  9.体裁题(或出处题)

  考查文章的体裁。真题目前为止只涉及过三类体裁:preface(序言)newspaper(新闻、报刊)book/view(书评)。

  省时间、高质量的阅读方法是:一次完成法。即只细读一次,边读边做题,

  阅读完成,答题完毕。此阅读方法就需要与之相适应的步骤,即先看题后看文章,读一段做一题。如果题目涉及多段,则看完所有相关段落后,最后再答题。此方法及步骤的优点在于:易于精准定位,节省时间,提高正确率。每篇文章最重要的就是第一段的第一句,最后一句,以及每段的第一句和最后一段的最后一句。因为这些往往是中心句,对于文章的思路,架构,作者的态度,有很强的说明性。

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